John M. Hartvigsen examined the Brandywine Flag and authored the seminal article on its history and provenance in The Flag Bulletin No. 186 (March-April 1999). “The combined weight of the evidence,” he wrote, “indicates that the Brandywine Flag was the color of the Chester County Militia and that it was carried at the Battle of Brandywine.” The article is available as an open-access download below. Hartvigsen is a research fellow of The Flag Research Center and a former president of the North American Vexillological Association-Association nord-américaine de vexillologie. He won the Captain William Driver Award for that association’s best paper in 2012 for “Utah’s Mammoth Statehood Flag”.